Works sited

Appendix A. – Modified Mercalli Scale

  1. Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable circumstances. (I Rossi-Forel Scale.)
  2. Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings. Delicately suspended objects may swing. (I to II Rossi-Forel Scale.)

III.        Felt quite noticeably indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings, but many people

  1. During the day felt indoors by many, outdoors by few. At night, some awakened. Dishes, windows, doors dis­turbed; walls make creaking sound. Sensation like heavy truck striking building. Standing motorcars rocked noticeably. (IV to V Rossi Forel Scale.)
  2. Felt by nearly everyone, many awakened. Some dishes, windows, and so on broken; cracked plaster in a few places; unstable objects overturned. Disturbances of trees, poles, and other tall objects sometimes noticed. Pendulum clocks may stop.

(V to VI Rossi Forel Scale.)

  1. Felt by all, many frightened and run outdoors. Some heavy furniture moved; a few instances of fallen plaster and damaged chimneys. Damage slight. (VI to VII Rossi-Forel Scale.)

VII.       Everybody runs outdoors. Damage negligible in build­ings of good design and con­struction; slight to moderate in well-built ordinary struc­tures; considerable in poorly built or badly designed struc­tures; some chimneys broken. Noticed by persons driving cars. (VIII Rossi-Forel Scale.)

VIII.      Damage slight in specially designed structures; consid­erable in ordinary substantial buildings with partial col­lapse; great in poorly built structures. Panel walls thrown out of frame struc­tures. Fall of chimneys, fact01y stacks, columns, monuments, walls. Heavy furniture overturned. Sand and mud ejected in small amounts. Changes in well water. Persons driving cars disturbed. (VIII+ to IX Rossi-Forel Scale.)

  1. Damage considerable in specially designed structures; well-designed frame struc­tures thrown out of plumb; great in substantial buildings, with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off founda­tions. Ground cracked con­spicuously. Underground pipes broken. (IX+ Rossi­Forel Scale.)
  2. Some well-built wooden structures destroyed; most masonry and frame structures destroyed with foundations; ground badly cracked. Rails bent. Landslides considerable from river banks and steep slopes. Shifted sand and mud. Water splashed, slopped over banks. (X Rossi­Forel Scale.)
  3. Few, if any, (masonry) struc­tures remain standing. Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground. Under­ground pipelines completely out of service. Earth slumps and land slips in soft ground. Rails bent greatly.

XII. Damage total. Waves seen on ground surface. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown into the air.

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